A collection of Syriac printed texts available on-line

I have included here links to many on-line printed editions of Syriac and Syriac studies related texts. Use the search facility on your web browser to locate items of interest.

I would like to express my gratitude to all those institutions and individuals who have made these resources freely available to all. These on-line texts are arranged in two tables; The first table lists printed books and collections of books with editions of classical Syriac texts and the second table lists selected books of relevance to Syriac studies, for example; scholarly studies, Syriac grammars and manuscript catalogues.

Books and articles with printed editions of Syriac texts

The following books and articles available on-line all contain editions of Syriac inscriptions and texts imaged from printed materials.

Ancient authors /
Genre

Title with links

Descriptions and comments

Most ancient Syriac authors are represented and the collection includes many important early editions of their Syriac texts

The Syriac reference library.

More Syriac books from the BYU.

Many valuable, important and difficult to find, out of copyright Syriac books arranged in categories for easy searching and down-loading. This extremely useful site is a production of the CUA and the BYU, (see detailed acknowledgements on the site). The books digitized here have been selected from the library of Prof. Henri Hyvernat (1858-1941) by Dr. David G. K. Taylor.

The 'more Syriac book' page is also crammed with dozens of very useful digital editions of Syriac books.

Miscellaneous

The University of Bonn, Digitization of Syriac printed books.


A large collection of Syriac texts edited from ancient Syriac authors.

Bibliotheca orientalis Clementino-Vaticana, in qua manuscriptos codices Syriacos, Arabicos, Persicos, Turcicos, Hebraicos, Samaritanos, Armenicos, AEthiopicos, Graecos, AEgyptiacos, Ibericos & Malabaricos...

Author: Joseph Simon. Assemani
Published: Rome, 1719-28
These four volumes contain not so much a catalogue as a printed library edited from Syriac Mss in the Vatican library. They contain long excerpts and editions of Syriac texts with accompanying Latin translations and comments.

A large collection, including Bar Daisan, Shem`on Bar Sabae, Aphrahat..

Patrologia Orientalis
Patrologia Syriaca

With thanks to Roger Pearse for collecting, describing and arranging these downloads; Large multi-volume collections of patristic works, including many important early works in Syriac.

Liturgy

Maronite Syriac books.

A collection of Maronite books, including a digitized copy of the Maronite Sh-himo in Syriac, published in the Lebanon in 1935.

Thomas bishop of Marga

The book of governors
[Syriac text with maps]
[English translation]

Edited by E. A. Wallis Budge & published in 2 volumes by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner und Co. London, 1893. NB: The Syriac text in volume 1 is arranged in the oriental fashion and so begins on page 623 (Syriac page 1) and ends on page 215, (Syriac page 407).

Syriac gospels

Lewis codex of the Old Syriac gospels edited from Sinai codex, called Sinai Syriac Ms 30.

Imaged from the first edition, published by CUL in 1894. Another electronic and searchable version of the Old Syriac gospel text can be found on the CAL database, though I am not sure whether the CAL database includes the Lewis Old Syriac codex or the Cureton Old Syriac codex, or both.

The whole Syriac bible
Ephrem of Nisibis
Theodore bishop of Mopsuestia
Isho`dad bishop of Merv
Jacob bishop of Serug
Philoxenus bishop of Mabbug
Aphrahat
Jacob bishop of Edessa
& many more!

Various Syriac source texts edited for the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon project

Select the desired kind of Syriac font, then 'Text browse' then 'Syriac' and a list of texts will then be provided courtesy of the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, USA. Select the text of interest and the chapter to browse the Syriac text.

Addai the Apostle
Jacob bishop of Serug
& others

Ancient Syriac documents relative to the earliest establishment of Christianity in Edessa

Early Syriac texts edited and printed using an Estrangela font and translated into English by William Cureton. Published by Williams & Norgate, London & Edinburgh, 1864

Hagiography

The acts of Mar Mari the Apostle

By Amir Harrak
Note: Includes an edition of the Syriac text.

Barhadbshabba Arbaya

Cause de la fondation des écoles

Edited and translated by Mgr. Addai Scher, Chaldean Archbishop of Séert (+ martyred AD 1915) and published in Turnhout (Belgium) by Brepols, 1981. Physical description: 29 cm (Patrologia orientalis ; t. 4 , fasc. 4 , n ° 18)

Hagiography

The legend of St. Alexis, the man of God

Edited and translated by Arthur Amiaud (1849-1889) and published by E. Bouillon, Paris 1889. The digitization seems to be only partly effective.

Severus Patriarch of Antioch, translated from Greek into Syriac by Paul of Calinicus and revised by Jacob bishop of Edessa

Les homiliae cathedrales de Sévère d'Antioche. Homélies LII à LVII / traduction syriaque inédite de Jacques d'Edesse

Homilies 52 to 58 edited and translated into French by Rubens Duval

Severus Patriarch of Antioch, translated from Greek into Syriac by Paul of Calinicus and revised by Jacob bishop of Edessa

Les "Homiliae cathedrales" de Sévère d'Antioche. Homélies XCIX à CIII / traduction syriaque de Jacques d'Édesse

Homilies 99 to 103 edited and translated into French by Ignazio Guidi

Hagiography

Vie de Jean Bar Aphtonia

Syriac text published and translated by F. Nau

Hagiography

Ammonii Eremitate espistolae

Edited and translated into Latin by Michael Kmosko

Mar Cyriaque

Comment le corps de Jacques Baradée fut enlevé du couvent de Casion par les moines de Phesiltha récit de Mar Cyriaque

Syriac text publ. & trad. by M. A. Kugener.

Nestorius patriarch of Constantinople

Documents pour servir à l'histoire de l'Eglise Nestorienne

Textes syriaques éd. et trad. par F. Nau.
Includes texts by Nestorius.

A collection, see opposite

Morceaux choisis de littérature araméenne
Volume 1
Volume 2

Author: Jacques Eugene Manna
Published: The Dominican Fathers, Mosul, 1901.
Description: 2 vols.
Comment: Translating the contents tables at the back of each volume;
Volume 1: Syriac OT, Aphrahat, Ephrem, Maroutha of Miparkat, Isaac of Antioch, Cyrillona, Liturgy, hymns etc, Narsai, Jacob of Serug, John of Amid.
Volume 2: Isaac of Nineveh, Jacob of Edessa, Timothy I, Catholicos,Thomas of Marga, Rabban John Asaya, Antony Rhetor, Eliya of Anbar, Emmanuel Bar Shahare, Philoxenus of Mabbug, Eliya III, Catholicos, The work called, 'The cause of all causes', George Warda, Kamis Bar Qarde, Isho`yabh Hedhaiyabhe Catholicos – Letters, Bar Ma`dani, Bar `Ebroyo, `Abedisho` of Nisibis.

Ahoudemmeh Metropolitan of Tagrit
Maroutha Metropolitan of Tagrit & Maphrian of the East

Histoires d'Ahoudemmeh et de Marouta: métropolitains jacobites de Tagrit et de l'Orient (VIe et VIIe siècles). suivies du "Traité d'Ahoudemmeh sur l'homme"

Textes syriaques inédits publ., trad. et annotés par F. Nau
Published: Patrologia Orientalis, Brepols, 1905, reprinted 1982

Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia
Barhadbešabba `Arbaïa

La seconde partie de l'histoire de Barhadbešabba `Arbaïa. et "Controverse de Théodore de Mopsueste avec les macédoniens"

Texte syriaque éd. et trad. par F. Nau

Inscriptions

Inscriptions sémitiques de la Syrie, de la Mésopotamie et de la région de Mossoul

By H. Pognon. Many Syriac inscriptions are edited here, some are very early.

Severus Syrian Orthodox patriarch of Antioch

Vie de Sévère par Zacharie le Scholastique

Textes syriaques publ., trad. et annotés par M.-A. Kugener

A large collection

The Internet Archive

Many (not all) of the following texts can be found using this search script.

Philoxenus bishop of Mabbug

Three letters of Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabbôgh (485-519) : being the letter to the monks, the first letter to the monks of Beth-Gaugal and the letter to Emperor Zeno

Vaschalde, A., 1902
Notes: This edition is based upon three Vatican Mss; 138=A, 135=B and 136=C. The three Syriac texts are included from page 127:
To the monks; p. 127
To the monks of Beth Gaugal; p. 146
To Zeno; p. 163
For an analysis of the biblical quotations, see p. 183
There is an electronic version of the translation here courtesy of Roger Pearse and an electronic version of the Syriac text can be found on the CAL server courtesy of the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, USA.

Ephrem of Nisibis

S. Ephraim's Prose Refutations of Mani, Marcion, and Bardaisan. Vol. 1: The Discourses Addressed to Hypatius

Author: Mitchell, C.W. (ed.)
Published: London, Williams and Norgate, 1912

Ephrem of Nisibis

Fragments of the Commentary of Ephraem Syrus upon the Diatessaron

Author: Harris, J. R.
Published: London: C.J. Clay and Sons, 1895

Ephrem of Nisibis

S. Ephraim's quotations from the Gospel

Author: Burkitt, Francis Crawford 1864-1935
Published: CUP 1901

Eusebius bishop of Caesarea

History of the Martyrs in Palestine, by Eusebius, Bishop in Caesarea, Discovered in a Very Ancient Syriac Manuscript

Author: Cureton, W. (ed.)
Published: London / Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate / Paris: C. Borrani, 1861

Stephen Bar Sudaili
Philoxenus of Mabbug
Jacob of Serug

Stephen bar Sudaili the Syrian mystic, and the book of Hierotheos

Author: Frothingham, Arthur Lincoln, 1859-1923.
Published: Leyden : E.J. Brill, 1886

John bishop of Ephesus

Extracts from the Ecclesiastical History of John, Bishop of Ephesus

Payne Smith, J. (ed.) Published: Semitic Study Series 13; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1909
Note: Includes the Syriac text.

George bishop of the Arab Tribes
Moshe Bar Kepha bishop of Mosul

Two Commentaries on the Jacobite Liturgy by George Bishop of the Arab Tribes and Moses Bar Kepha: together with the Syriac Anaphora of St. James and a Document Entitled The Book of Life

Connolly, R.H. and Codrington, H.W. (eds.), published London / Oxford: Williams and Norgate, 1913

Hagiography

Legends of Eastern Saints Chiefly from Syriac Sources, [Volume 1] [Volume 2]

Wensinck, A.J. (ed.),. 2 vols. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1911, 1913). Note: Both volumes contain some Syriac text.

Hagiography

Les légendes syriaques d'Aaron de Saroug, de Maxime et Domèce, d'Abraham, maître de Barsoma et de l'empereur Maurice

Texte syriaque éd. et trad. par F. Nau.

Isho`dad of Merv, Bishop of Hadatha

The Commentaries of Isho`dad of Merv, Bishop of Hadatha (c. 850 A.D.), in Syriac and English. [Volume 1] [Volume 2] [Volume 3]

Gibson, M.D. (ed.), 3 vols. Horae Semiticae 5, 6, 7; Published by Cambridge University Press, 1911.
Notes: These are the gospel commentaries of Isho`dad, East Syrian bishop of Merv. The first volume contains the English translation and volumes 2 and 3 contain a critical edition of the Syriac text.

Inscriptions

The Nestorian Monument in China

Saeki, P.Y., published in London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1916.

Various

Journal Asiatique

This is the general URL for the whole journal. A number of Syriac articles containing editions of Syriac texts have been selected as follows:

Jacob bishop of Edessa

L'Hexaméron de Jacques d'Édesse

M. l'abbé MARTIN, Journal Asiatique, 1888 Jan - June in two parts; pp. 155 ff. and 401 ff. Includes some edited Syriac text from the Hexameron, (=Gk, 'six days' referring to the 'six days' of creation.).

Hagiography

An edition of the Syriac 'Life of Mar Denha I'.

1895 Jan - June pp. 110 ff. Includes the Syriac text of the life of Mar Denha I who was Catholicos of the East in the 13th century.

The School of Nisibis

L'école de-Nisibe, son histoire, ses statuts.

By M. J.-B. Chabot 1896 July - Dec pp. 43 ff. No edition of the Syriac text is included here, however, the Syriac statutes of the School of Nisibis can be found in electronic format on the CAL website courtesy of the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, USA.

Dionysius Bar Salibi

Discours de Jacques (Denys) Bar Salibî à l'intronisation du patriarche Michel le Syrien

By M. J.-B. Chabot. 1908 . Janv.-juin (Sér. 10 / T. 11), pp. 87 - 116

Gregory Bar Hebreaus

Bar Hebraeus on Islam

By F. Nau. 1927 July-Dec, see pp. 311~331. Syriac text commences p. 318


Syriac related books and articles, including Syriac manuscript catalogues

The following books and articles contain materials of general interest to Syriac scholars and enthusiasts. A number of important Syriac reference works are here including; grammatical, lexical, historical and literary-historical books, geographical books and manuscript catalogues. The manuscript catalogues are now listed alphabetically by place name.

Ancient authors /
Genre

Title / description

Comments

A large collection

The Internet Archive

Many (not all) of the following texts can be found using this search script.

Tatian

A Greek fragment of Tatian's Diatessaron from Dura

Author: Carl Hermann Kraeling, 1897-1966
Published: London : Christophers, c. 1935

Ephrem of Nisibis

A Dissertation on the Gospel Commentary of S. Ephraem the Syrian with a Scriptural Index to his Works

Author: Hill, J.H.
Published: Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1896.

Ephrem of Nisibis

S. Ephraem Syri Opera

Author: Mercati, S. J.
Published: Rome 1915

Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople

Le livre d'Heraclide de Damas

Authors: François Nau, 1864-1931, Paul Bedjan
Published: Paris : Letouzy et Ane, 1910
Comments: Contains French translations and some Greek texts of Nestorius' correspondence.

Cyril bishop of Alexandria

A Commentary upon the Gospel according to S. Luke by S. Cyril: [Volume 1] [Volume 2]

Payne Smith, R. (tr.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1859
This is only an English translation. There is no edition of the Syriac text here.

`Anan Isho`of Hedhaiyabh

The Paradise or Garden of the Holy Fathers, Being Histories of the Anchorites, Recluses, Monks, Coenobites, and Ascetic Fathers of the Deserts of Egypt between A.D. CCL and A.D. CCCC circiter [Volume 1] [Volume 2]

Budge, E.A.W. (tr.) published London: Chatto & Windus, 1907
The Syriac text is not digitized here.

John bishop of Ephesus

The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus

Payne Smith, R. (tr.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1860
English translation only, no Syriac text.

John the Stylite, of Beth-Mari-Qanun

Select Narratives of Holy Women from the Syro-Antiochene or Sinai Palimpsest as Written above the Old Syriac Gospels by John the Stylite, of Beth-Mari-Qanun in A.D. 778

Lewis, A.S. (tr.), Studia Sinaitica 10, published in London by C.J. Clay and Sons, 1900
Note: There is no Syriac text here, only the English translation.

A large collection

Journal Asiatique

This is the general URL for the whole journal. A number of Syriac related articles have been selected as follows:

The Palmyrene Aramaic dialect

Inscriptions palmyréniennes inédites.
[Part 1] [Part 2]

Author: M. DE VOGUÉ
Part 1: 1883 Jan - June pp. 231
Part 2: 1883 July - Dec pp. 149 ff.

The Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialect

Inscriptions syriaques [i.e. Neo-Aramaic] de Salamàs, en Perse.

Author: M. RUBENS DUVAL published in the Journal Asiatique,1885 Jan - June pp. 39

Dadisho` Qatraya

Notice sur la vie et les oeuvres de Dadîšô' Qatraya

Author: Mgr Addai Scher, published in the Journal Asiatique, 1906 Janv.-juin (Sér. 10 / T. 7). p. 103

John of Apamea
Joseph Hazzaya

Éclaircissements sur quelques points de la littérature syriaque

Author: J-B Chabot. 1906 . Juil.-déc. (Sér. 10 / T. 8), pp. 259 – 294. Note: This article contains some interesting observations about the identities and writings of John of Apamea and of Joseph Hazzaya.

Grammar

Compendious Syriac grammar with a table of characters by Julius Euting. Trans. from the 2nd and improved German ed., by James A. Crichton, D.D.

Author1: Theodor Nöldeke
Author2: Julius Euting
Author3: James A. Crichton
Published: Williams & Norgate, London, 1904
Description: 106 MB

Grammar

Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament (Peshitta): with copious references, dictions, names of persons and places and some various readings found in the Curetonian, Sinaitic Palimpsest, Philoxenian & Other Mss

Author: William Jennings
Published: Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1926
Description: pp. 244, 50.5 MB

Grammar

Syriac Grammar, 3rd revised edition

Author: Phillips, G.
Published: Cambridge: Deighton, Bell & Co and in London: Bell & Daldy, 1866

History

La Littérature Syriaque

Author: Rubens Duval
Published: Paris, 1907

History

Geschichte der syrischen Literatur mit Ausschluss der christlich palästinensischen Texte

Author: Anton Baumstark
Published: Bonn 1922

History

Das syrisch-monophysitische mönchtum im Tur-Abdin von seinen anfängen bis zur mitte des 12. jahrhunders

Author: Krüger, Paul, 1904-1975
Published: Münster i.W. : H. Greve, 1937
Comments: Text in German. A history of the churches, monasteries and literature produced in the Tur `Abdin Christian region of eastern Turkey.

Geography

Discoveries Among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon: with travels in Armenia, Kurdistan, and the...

Author: Austen Henry Layard

Geography

Travels in Africa, Egypt and Syria, from the year 1792 to 1798

Author: Browne, William George (1768-1813)

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Alqosh)

Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques conservés dans la bibliothèque du couvent des Chaldéens de Notre-Dame-des-Semences [Part 1] [Part 2]

Author: Mgr Addai Scher
Part 1: 1906 . Janv.-juin (Sér. 10 / T. 7). p. 479
Part 2: 1906 . Juil.-déc. (Sér. 10 / T. 8). P. 55

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Amid = Diabekir)

Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques et arabes conservés à l'archevêché chaldéen de Diarbékir
[Part 1] [Part 2]

Author: Mgr Addai Scher
Part 1: 1907 . Juil.-déc. (Sér. 10 / T. 10), p. 331 - 384
Part 2: Ibid. p. 385 - 432

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Berlin)

Verzeichniss der syrischen Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin

Author: Eduard Sachau
Published: Berlin: A. Asher & co, 1899.
Description: 2 vols. xvi + viii + 943pp. + 3 pl.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Birmingham)

Catalogue of the Mingana Collection of Manuscripts
Copies; [Vol1], [Vol2], [Vol3]

Author: Alphonse Mingana
Published: Cambridge: Heffer and Sons Ltd., 1933.
Description: 3 Vols;
Vol. I - Syriac and Garshuni Manuscripts PDF (296 MB)
Vol. II - Christian Arabic and Additional Syriac Manuscripts PDF (78.9 MB)
Vol. III - Additional Christian Arabic and Syriac Manuscripts PDF (65.8 MB)
Comment: The Mingana manuscripts can now be accessed from the reading room in the Birmingham University main library. Most of them can be consulted there, either directly or using the microfiche edition.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Cambridge)

A Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge

Author: William Wright, (1830-1889)
Published: Cambridge University Press, 2 vols., 1901

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Charfet)

Catalogue des manuscrits de Charfet

Author: Mgr. Isaac Armalat
Published: Jounieh, Lebanon 1937

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Florence)

Bibliothecae Mediceae Laurentianae et Palatinae Codicum MMS. Orientalium catalogus

Author: S. E. Assemani
Published: Florence, 1742

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Harvard)

Harvard Syriac manuscript on-line catalogue

This is an on-line catalogue of Harvard Syriac manuscripts preserved in the Houghton Library, Harvard University which was prepared by Dr. J. F. Coakley.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Jerusalem)

Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques conservés dans la bibliothèque du patriarcat orthodoxe de Jérusalem.

Author: J-B Chabot.1894 Jan - June
Description: pp. 92 ff.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Jerusalem)

Final inventory of the microfilmed manuscripts of the St. Mark's Convent Jerusalem. (Size c. 8.5 MBytes)

Author: William Francis Macomber, 2005
A short-form HTML hand-list for these Mss can also be found here.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(London)

Catalogus codicum manuscriptorum orientalium qui in Museo Britannico asservantur. Pars prima, codices syriacos et carshunicos amplectens

Authors: F. Rosen & J. Forshall
Published: London, 1838

Syriac Ms catalogue
(London)

Catalogue of Syriac manuscripts in the British museum acquired since the year 1838:
Copy 1; [Vol1], [Vol2], [Vol3]
Copy 2; [Vol1], [Vol2], [Vol3]

Author: William Wright, (1830-1889)
Published: London, British Museum. Dept. of Oriental Printed Books and Manuscripts, 1870-1872.
(Two digital copies of this catalogue are now extant.)

Syriac Ms catalogue
(London)

Descriptive list of Syriac and Karshuni manuscripts in the British Museum acquired since 1873.

Author: George Margoliouth
Published: London, British Museum, 1899

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Oxford)

Catalogi codicum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Bodleianae, pars VIta, Codices Syriacos, Carshunicos, Mandaeos, complectens

Author: Payne-Smith, R.
Published: Oxford 1864.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Paris)

Catalogues des manuscrits Syriaque et Sabéens (Mandaïtes) de la Bibliothèque Nationale

Author: H. Zotenberg
Published: Paris 1874.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Paris)

Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques de la Bibliothèque nationale acquis depuis 1874.

Author: J-B Chabot. 1896 July - Dec pp. 234 ff.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Paris)

Corrections to Zotenberg's catalogue of the Syriac Mss in the BNF, Paris.

Author: F. Nau. 1915 Jan - June p. 487
Some Paris Syriac Mss added to the BNF later, have also been described by F. Nau, see his, 'Notice des manuscrits syriaques, éthiopiens et mandéens, entrés à la Bibliothèque Nationale depuis l'édition des catalogues (syriaque 289-355)', Revue de l'Orient chrétien 2e série, tome VI (XVI), 1911, p. 271-310.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Rome)

Bibliothecae Apostolicae Vaticanae codicum manuscriptorum catalogus, in tres partes distributus

Author: S. E. Assemani & Joseph Simon Assemani
Reprinted: Paris, 1926
This catalogue contains Latin and Syriac descriptions of manuscripts Vat. Syr. 1 ~ 256.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Rome)

Scriptorum veterum nova collectio e Vaticanis codicibus edita ab Angelo Maio, vol. 5

Author: A. Mai
Published: Rome 1831
Description: pp.1-82, 243-248. This catalogue contains Latin descriptions of manuscripts Vat. Syr. 258 ~ 459.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Rome)

Notice sur les manuscrits syriaques du Musée Borgia aujourd'hui à la Bibliothèque vaticane

Author: Mgr Addai Scher, 1909 . Janv.-juin (Sér. 10 / T. 13), p. 249. Note: All these manuscripts were moved to the Vatican library in AD 1902.

Syriac Ms Catalogue
(Sinai)

Catalogue of the Syriac Mss. in the Convent of S. Catherine on Mount Sinai. (Studia Sinaitica 1)

Author: Agnes Smith Lewis
Published: London 1894.
Comment: Many Sinai Syriac Mss were microfilmed in the 1950's by a team from the Library of Congress, Washington DC. Copies of this microfilm collection exist there and in other major libraries around the world.

Syriac Ms catalogue
(Yale)

Catalogue of the Yale library Syriac manuscripts

Catalogue of the Syriac Ms in the Yale library, courtesy of George Kiraz and the Hugoye on-line Syriac studies website.


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